Homosexual and effeminate male priests of a healing cult known as Zaar were described in 1977 by Pamela Constantinides. The Zaar cult served as a refuge for women and effeminate men in conservative, Muslim-dominated Sudan.
One a religious ceremony, Zar performances are now a dying art form. The following media clip describes the decline of this healing ritual performed by women for women.
Natvig, R. (1988). Liminal Rites and Female Symbolism in the Egyptian Zar Possession Cult. Numen, Vol. 35, No. 1, pp. 57-68